Epetra Development

Epetra provides the fundamental construction routines and services function that are required for serial and parallel linear algebra libraries. Epetra provides the underlying foundation for all Trilinos solvers.
Epetra contains a number of classes. They can be categorized as follows:
Primary parallel user classes. These are typically the most important classes for most users.
Communicator class: Epetra_Comm  Contains specific information about the parallel machine we are using. Currently supports serial (Epetra_SerialComm), MPI (Epetra_MpiComm) and prototype hybrid MPI/threaded parallel programming models.
Map classes: Epetra_Map, Epetra_LocalMap, Epetra_BlockMap  Contain information used to distribute vectors, matrices and other objects on a parallel (or serial) machine.
Vector class: Epetra_Vector  Real double precision vector class. Supports construction and use of vectors on a parallel machine. Epetra_FEVector is a specialization of Epetra_Vector to support construction of vectors from finite element applications. Epetra_Vector isa Epetra_MultiVector. Thus, any argument that requires an Epetra_MultiVector can also accept an Epetra_Vector.
Multivector class: Epetra_MultiVector  Real double precision multivector class. Supports construction and use of multivectors on a parallel machine. A multivector is a collection vectors. It is a generalizaion of a 2D array.
Sparse row graph class: Epetra_CrsGraph  Allows construction of a serial or parallel graph. The graph determines the communication pattern for subsequent matrix objects. All Epetra sparse matrix classes (Epetra_CrsMatrix, Epetra_VbrMatrix, Epetra_FECrsMatrix and Epetra_FEVbrMatrix) have an associated Epetra_CrsGraph. This graph is either constructed implicitly for the user as part of the construction of the matrix, or is passed in to the matrix constructor by the user. In the latter case the graph is either preconstructed by the user or extracted from an existing Epetra sparse matrix object using the Graph() accessor method.
Pure virtual row matrix class: Epetra_RowMatrix  Pure virtual class that specifies interfaces needed to do most of the common operations required by a row matrix. The Epetra_LinearProblem expects the matrix as a Epetra_RowMatrix. The Epetra_CrsMatrix, Epetra_VbrMatrix, Epetra_FECrsMatrix and Epetra_FEVbrMatrix classes implement the Epetra_RowMatrix interface and therefore objects from these classes can be used with Epetra_LinearProblem and with AztecOO. AztecOO also provides the Epetra_MsrMatrix class as an Epetra_RowMatrix adapter that accepts an AZ_MATRIX struct (as defined in Aztec 2.1) and provides Epetra_RowMatrix functionality using the AZ_Matrix object, without copying matrix data. (See the AztecOO home page for details.) Furthermore, any class that implements Epetra_RowMatrix can be used with Epetra_LinearProblem and AztecOO.
Easiertoimplement row matrix class: Epetra_BasicRowMatrix  Epetra_RowMatrix has many pure virtual functions that must be implemented by an adaptor. In many cases these functions can have a reasonable default implementation in terms of other functions, or using basic information that can be passed into a constructor. Epetra_BasicRowMatrix is intended to make implementation of Epetra_RowMatrix easier. All methods are virtual, but almost all methods have a default implementation that is reasonable. For someone who is implementing their first Epetra_RowMatrix adapter, Epetra_BasicRowMatrix is probably a good starting point.
Sparse row matrix class: Epetra_CrsMatrix  Real double precision sparse matrix class. Supports construction and use of rowwise sparse matrices. Epetra_FECrsMatrix is a specialization that supports finite element applications more naturally.
Sparse block row matrix class: Epetra_VbrMatrix  Real double precision block sparse matrix class. Supports construction and use of rowwise block sparse matrices. Epetra_FEVbrMatrix is a specialization that supports finite element applications more naturally.
Jagged diagonal sparse matrix class: Epetra_JadMatrix  Real double precision sparse matrix class for vector processors. Constructs and updates a jaggeddiagonal format sparse matrix from an existing Epetra_RowMatrix. The jaggeddiagonal format is one of the better sparse matrix data structures for vector and vectorlike processors. Matrix elements are organized so that long vector loops can be executed without memory conflicts. This approach is very effective for machines with vector hardware and an interleaved memory system that supports high bandwidth irregularpattern memory access. Note that this class can take any existing Epetra sparse matrix as input, but does not require a constructed matrix as input. If the input Epetra_RowMatrix can construct elements ondemand and onerowatatime, then no additional copy of the matrix is needed.
Import/Export classes: Epetra_Import and Epetra_Export  Constructed from two Epetra_BlockMap (or Epetra_Map or Epetra_LocalMap). Allows efficient transfer of objects built using one map to a new object with a new map. Supports local and global permutations, overlapping Schwarz operations and many other data movement algorithms.
Primary serial user classes. These classes provide object oriented interfaces to LAPACK capabilities, providing easy access to the most powerful numerical methods in LAPACK.
General dense matrix/vector classes: Epetra_SerialDenseMatrix, Epetra_SerialDenseVector  Lightweight dense matrix and vector classes used to define matrices, lefthandsides and righthandsides for the serial solver classes. Epetra_IntSerialDenseVector is also useful for construction of Epetra_Maps and advanced parallel data redistribution requirements. Also note that the C++ standard vector class can be a better alternative to these classes. However the STL vector class can be difficult to debug when memory errors are present.
General dense solver class: Epetra_SerialDenseSolver  Provides dense matrix services such as factorizations, solves, QR, SVD, etc., with special attention focused on numerically robust solutions.
Symmetric dense matrix class: Epetra_SerialSymDenseMatrix  Similar to Epetra_SerialDenseMatrix except focused specifically on symmetric matrices.
Symmetric definite dense solver: Epetra_SerialSpdDenseSolver  Similar to Epetra_SerialDenseSolver except focused specifically on symmetric definite systems.
Utility classes.
Timing class: Epetra_Time  Provides timing functions for the purposes of performance analysis.
Floating point operation class: Epetra_Flops  Provides floating point operations (FLOPS) counting and reporting functions for the purposes of performance analysis. All Epetra computational classes accumulate FLOP counts associated with the this object of the computations.
Distributed directory class: Epetra_Directory  Allows construction of a distributed directory. Once constructed, a directory allows one to access randomly distributed objects in an efficient, scalable manner. This class is intended for support of general Epetra_BlockMap and Epetra_Map objects, but is useful in other settings as well.
BLAS wrapper class: Epetra_BLAS  A ``thin'' layer of C++ code wrapping the basic linear algebra subprograms (BLAS). This class provides a single instance interface between Epetra and the BLAS. In this way we can easily switch BLAS interfaces and manage the C++/Fortran translation differences that exist between different computer systems. This class also provides a very convenient way to templatize the BLAS.
LAPACK wrapper class: Epetra_LAPACK  A ``thin'' layer of C++ code wrapping LAPACK. Like Epetra_BLAS, it provides nice C++ access to LAPACK.
Epetra provides a small set of userextendable Fortran and C interfaces. These are found in Epetra_C_wrappers and Epetra_Fortran_wrappers. These wrappers are handgenerated, so adding to the list requires handcoding. The Trilinos team is looking at automated techniques to support Fortran and C, but we have not made any signficant effort in this direction.
Epetra can be used as a standalone package. However, it also provides the foundation for Trilinos. Trilinos is a collection of solver packages. The first available package is AztecOO, a C++ implementation of the preconditioned iterative solver package Aztec. This particular class can be used to solve a linear system as defined by a Epetra_LinearProblem object that is passed in at construction. Alternatively, one may pass in the matrix, initial guess and righthandside as Epetra objects and solves a linear system using preconditioner and solver options set by the user.
In order to support existing Aztec users, we have developed a few modules that aid in the transition from Aztec to Trilinos/AztecOO. The first module is AZOO_iterate(). This function has an identical interface to AZ_iterate and, for most purpose, these two should be interchangeable. AZOO_iterate() differs from AZ_iterate in that it first converts the Aztec objects to Epetra objects using the module Aztec2Epetra(). It then creates an Epetra_LinearProblem and performs any requested scaling explicitly, and then calls AztecOO. The transition to AZOO_iterate() is meant to be trivial and temporary. We encourage users to customize their own version of AZOO_iterate(), and to eventually build Epetra objects directly.
AztecOO also provides the Epetra_MsrMatrix class as an Epetra_RowMatrix adapter that accepts an AZ_MATRIX struct (as defined in Aztec 2.1) and provides Epetra_RowMatrix functionality using the AZ_MATRIX object, without copying matrix data. If your application already stores matrix data in an AZ_MATRIX struct, then you can directly use AztecOO, ML and Ifpack without reimplementing the matrix construction process using native Epetra sparse matrix classes.
Epetra, and therefore Trilinos, is easily extended to support new implementations of basic functionality. Although Epetra provides serial and MPI support, other parallel communication methods (such as Coarray Fortran, UPC, SHMEM, etc.) can be implemented because parallel machine functionality is accessed via the abstract Epetra_Comm interface. Similarly, solver algorithms that need access to the action of a linear operator on a vector get access to this functionality via the Epetra_Operator interface. Any class (including all Epetra matrix classes, Ifpack and ML preconditioners and AztecOO) that implements the Epetra_Operator interface can be used. The final major abstract interface in Epetra is Epetra_RowMatrix. Any solver algorithm that needs access to matrix coefficients can obtain this information via the Epetra_RowMatrix interface. All Epetra sparse matrix classes implement this interface. AztecOO, Ifpack, ML and other packages access matrix coefficients via the Epetra_RowMatrix interface.
By using abstract base classes to access external functionality and then providing a wide range of default implementations. Novel adapters to Epetra_Comm have been developed experimentally, but no production code is available beyond serial and MPI. Epetra_Operator is commonly extended by users who have complex operators that cannot be explicitly constructed but can be implicitly applied. Examples include ``matrixfree'' methods such as directional derivative approximations and implicit inverses via iterative methods. Most preconditioners are easily expressed as Epetra_Operator objects. Epetra_RowMatrix is often extended to provide support for alternative data structures, or to eliminate the need to explicitly store matrix coefficients but instead build them ``onthefly'' rowbyrow as needed.
Note: Although Epetra_RowMatrix is the base class that is used to access matrix coefficient information, if you want to provide your own implementation of Epetra_RowMatrix, it is probably best to inherit from the Epetra_BasicRowMatrix. Epetra_BasicRowMatrix provides a reasonable implementation of most Epetra_RowMatrix methods and reduces the number of methods you must implement from 39 to between 4 and 6. To see an example of how to make your own Epetra_RowMatrix class using Epetra_BasicRowMatrix as a starting point, see the Epetra_JadMatrix class.
Although it may seem logical to have abstract multivector and vector classes, the practival value of such classes is not as obvious to the Epetra developers, at least at the Epetra level of functionality. Serious efforts in abstract multivectors/vectors is very important to Trilinos, however our efforts in this area have been focused on the Thyra package. In Thyra the user will find a broad set of interfaces and an incredibly useful capability to provide userdefined multivector/vector operations (see the RTOp package). Furthermore, Epetra multivectors/vectors are fully compatible with Thyra.
The following example code generates a simple tridiagonal matrix of dimension "n" where "n" is passed in as an argument. The matrix is then used by the power method to compute the largest eigenvalue and corresponding eigenvector.
The point of this example is to illustrate the flow of calls when using Epetra. This example program can be found in the file Trilinos/packages/epetra/examples/petra_power_method/cxx_main.cpp.
//@HEADER // ************************************************************************ // // Epetra: Linear Algebra Services Package // Copyright 2001 Sandia Corporation // // Under the terms of Contract DEAC0494AL85000 with Sandia Corporation, // the U.S. Government retains certain rights in this software. // // Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without // modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are // met: // // 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright // notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. // // 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright // notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the // documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. // // 3. Neither the name of the Corporation nor the names of the // contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from // this software without specific prior written permission. // // THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY SANDIA CORPORATION "AS IS" AND ANY // EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE // IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR // PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL SANDIA CORPORATION OR THE // CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, // EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, // PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR // PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF // LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING // NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS // SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. // // Questions? Contact Michael A. Heroux (maherou@sandia.gov) // // ************************************************************************ //@HEADER #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <cassert> #include <string> #include <cmath> #include <vector> #include "Epetra_Map.h" #include "Epetra_Time.h" #include "Epetra_MultiVector.h" #include "Epetra_Vector.h" #include "Epetra_CrsMatrix.h" #ifdef EPETRA_MPI #include "mpi.h" #include "Epetra_MpiComm.h" #endif #ifndef __cplusplus #define __cplusplus #endif #include "Epetra_Comm.h" #include "Epetra_SerialComm.h" #include "Epetra_Version.h" // prototype int power_method(Epetra_CrsMatrix& A, double & lambda, int niters, double tolerance, bool verbose); int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int ierr = 0, i; #ifdef EPETRA_MPI // Initialize MPI MPI_Init(&argc,&argv); Epetra_MpiComm Comm( MPI_COMM_WORLD ); #else Epetra_SerialComm Comm; #endif int MyPID = Comm.MyPID(); int NumProc = Comm.NumProc(); bool verbose = (MyPID==0); if (verbose) cout << Epetra_Version() << endl << endl; cout << Comm << endl; // Get the number of local equations from the command line if (argc!=2) { if (verbose) cout << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " number_of_equations" << endl; std::exit(1); } int NumGlobalElements = std::atoi(argv[1]); if (NumGlobalElements < NumProc) { if (verbose) cout << "numGlobalBlocks = " << NumGlobalElements << " cannot be < number of processors = " << NumProc << endl; std::exit(1); } // Construct a Map that puts approximately the same number of // equations on each processor. Epetra_Map Map(NumGlobalElements, 0, Comm); // Get update list and number of local equations from newly created Map. int NumMyElements = Map.NumMyElements(); std::vector<int> MyGlobalElements(NumMyElements); Map.MyGlobalElements(&MyGlobalElements[0]); // Create an integer vector NumNz that is used to build the Petra Matrix. // NumNz[i] is the Number of OFFDIAGONAL term for the ith global equation // on this processor std::vector<int> NumNz(NumMyElements); // We are building a tridiagonal matrix where each row has (1 2 1) // So we need 2 offdiagonal terms (except for the first and last equation) for (i=0; i<NumMyElements; i++) if (MyGlobalElements[i]==0  MyGlobalElements[i] == NumGlobalElements1) NumNz[i] = 2; else NumNz[i] = 3; // Create a Epetra_Matrix Epetra_CrsMatrix A(Copy, Map, &NumNz[0]); // Add rows oneatatime // Need some vectors to help // Off diagonal Values will always be 1 std::vector<double> Values(2); Values[0] = 1.0; Values[1] = 1.0; std::vector<int> Indices(2); double two = 2.0; int NumEntries; for (i=0; i<NumMyElements; i++) { if (MyGlobalElements[i]==0) { Indices[0] = 1; NumEntries = 1; } else if (MyGlobalElements[i] == NumGlobalElements1) { Indices[0] = NumGlobalElements2; NumEntries = 1; } else { Indices[0] = MyGlobalElements[i]1; Indices[1] = MyGlobalElements[i]+1; NumEntries = 2; } ierr = A.InsertGlobalValues(MyGlobalElements[i], NumEntries, &Values[0], &Indices[0]); assert(ierr==0); // Put in the diagonal entry ierr = A.InsertGlobalValues(MyGlobalElements[i], 1, &two, &MyGlobalElements[i]); assert(ierr==0); } // Finish up ierr = A.FillComplete(); assert(ierr==0); // Create vectors for Power method // variable needed for iteration double lambda = 0.0; int niters = NumGlobalElements*10; double tolerance = 1.0e2; // Iterate Epetra_Flops counter; A.SetFlopCounter(counter); Epetra_Time timer(Comm); ierr += power_method(A, lambda, niters, tolerance, verbose); double elapsed_time = timer.ElapsedTime(); double total_flops =counter.Flops(); double MFLOPs = total_flops/elapsed_time/1000000.0; if (verbose) cout << "\n\nTotal MFLOPs for first solve = " << MFLOPs << endl<< endl; // Increase diagonal dominance if (verbose) cout << "\nIncreasing magnitude of first diagonal term, solving again\n\n" << endl; if (A.MyGlobalRow(0)) { int numvals = A.NumGlobalEntries(0); std::vector<double> Rowvals(numvals); std::vector<int> Rowinds(numvals); A.ExtractGlobalRowCopy(0, numvals, numvals, &Rowvals[0], &Rowinds[0]); // Get A[0,0] for (i=0; i<numvals; i++) if (Rowinds[i] == 0) Rowvals[i] *= 10.0; A.ReplaceGlobalValues(0, numvals, &Rowvals[0], &Rowinds[0]); } // Iterate (again) lambda = 0.0; timer.ResetStartTime(); counter.ResetFlops(); ierr += power_method(A, lambda, niters, tolerance, verbose); elapsed_time = timer.ElapsedTime(); total_flops = counter.Flops(); MFLOPs = total_flops/elapsed_time/1000000.0; if (verbose) cout << "\n\nTotal MFLOPs for second solve = " << MFLOPs << endl<< endl; // Release all objects #ifdef EPETRA_MPI MPI_Finalize() ; #endif /* end main */ return ierr ; } int power_method(Epetra_CrsMatrix& A, double &lambda, int niters, double tolerance, bool verbose) { Epetra_Vector q(A.RowMap()); Epetra_Vector z(A.RowMap()); Epetra_Vector resid(A.RowMap()); Epetra_Flops * counter = A.GetFlopCounter(); if (counter!=0) { q.SetFlopCounter(A); z.SetFlopCounter(A); resid.SetFlopCounter(A); } // Fill z with random Numbers z.Random(); // variable needed for iteration double normz, residual; int ierr = 1; for (int iter = 0; iter < niters; iter++) { z.Norm2(&normz); // Compute 2norm of z q.Scale(1.0/normz, z); A.Multiply(false, q, z); // Compute z = A*q q.Dot(z, &lambda); // Approximate maximum eigenvalue if (iter%100==0  iter+1==niters) { resid.Update(1.0, z, lambda, q, 0.0); // Compute A*q  lambda*q resid.Norm2(&residual); if (verbose) cout << "Iter = " << iter << " Lambda = " << lambda << " Residual of A*q  lambda*q = " << residual << endl; } if (residual < tolerance) { ierr = 0; break; } } return(ierr); }
The Epetra pacakge can also optionally support adapters to various interfaces. Support for these adapters can be turned on at configure time.
Epetra to Thyra Operator/Vector Adapters: These adapters take Epetra objects and turn them into Thyra objects.
Epetra to PyTrinos Adapters: These are Python wrappers that allow Epetra to be used from Python.
You can browse all of Epetra as a single doxygen collection. Warning, this is not the recommended way to learn about Epetra software. However, this is a good way to browse the directory structure of epetra, to locate files, etc.